Authors: Hristo Rasheev, Agnieszka Seremak, Radostina Stoyanova, and Alia Tadjer
Abstract: To create both greener and high-power metal-ion batteries, it is of prime importance to invent an unprecedented electrode material that will be able to store a colossal amount of charge carriers by a redox mechanism. Employing periodic DFT calculations, we modeled a new metal-organic framework, which displays energy density exceeding that of conventional inorganic and organic electrodes, such as Li- and Na-rich oxides and anthraquinones. The designed MOF has a rhombohedral unit cell in which an Ni(II) node is coordinated by 2,5-dicyano-p-benzoquinone linkers in such a way that all components participate in the redox reaction upon lithiation, sodiation and magnesiation. The spatial and electronic changes occurring in the MOF after the interaction with Li, Na and Mg are discussed on the basis of calculated electrode potentials versus Li0/Li+, Na0/Na+ and Mg0/Mg2+, respectively. In addition, the specific capacities and energy densities are calculated and used as a measure for the electrode applicability of the designed material. Although the highest capacity and energy density are predicted for Li storage, the greater structural robustness toward Na and Mg uptake suggests a higher cycling stability in addition to lower cost. The theoretical results indicate that the MOF is a promising choice for a green electrode material (with <10% heavy metal content) and is well worth experimental testing.